Programming Languages

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Generations of Programming Languages

A linear scale is one approach to position a language by the degree to which the user of the language is freed from the world of computer gibberish and allowed to think in terms associated with the problem being solved. However this is not the case in reality.

So the First Generation of programming languages are sometimes called "low-level" languages because the programmer has to use machine code that cannot be read like a series of instructions in English. In the higher order - the fifth generation - languages problems are solved in an environment in which the machine conforms to the humans' characteristics.

These generations are still taught at school but tend not to occupy the undergraduate or higher student.

  • 1. The first generation languages, or 1GL are low-level languages that are machine language.
  • 2. The second-generation languages, or 2GL are also low-level assembly languages.
  • 3. The third-generation languages, or 3GL are high-level languages such as C.
  • 4. The fourth-generation languages, or 4GL are languages that consist of statements similar to statements in a human language. Fourth generation languages are commonly used in database programming and scripts.
  • 5. The fifth-generation languages, or 5GL are programming languages that contain visual tools to help develop a program. A good example of a fifth generation language is Visual Basic.


AJAX is short for asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is a group of interrelated Web development techniques used on the client-side to create asynchronous Web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send data to and retrieve from a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data can be retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the name, the use of XML is not required, and the requests do not need to be asynchronous.


Free software developed to teach the basics of 3D models.


Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, was invented in 1964 for non-computer science students to learn something about programming. It is still used in some forms.


JS a dynamic programming language. It is most commonly used as part of web browsers, whose implementations allow client-side scripts to interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that is displayed. It is also used in server-side network programming with runtime environments such as Node.js, game development and the creation of desktop and mobile applications.

"Javascript is a client-side, object-based, case-sensitive language whose interpreter is embedded in web browser software." McGrath, Mike. Javascript: In Easy Steps. 2013 5th ed. p26.

Current Javascript versions

JavaScript 1.8.5, as of 27 July 2010.

Javascript resources

Eloquent Javascript

Javascript - Wikibooks

Javascript tutorial - W3C

7 Free JavaScript eBooks

A graphical programming language intended for educational use. Logo influenced Smalltalk which led in turn to Scratch.


Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C++ or Java. The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale.

Python resources

The Python Standard Library (3.4)

Hitchhikers Guide to Python

Python programming books - Wikibooks

Python v2.7.4 Tutorials Point


Scratch is a free desktop and online multimedia authoring tool that can be used by students, scholars, teachers, and parents to easily create games and other programs.